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Salamanca-Riba, Lourdes G.

Lourdes Salamanca-Riba
1244 Jeong H. Kim Engineering Building

News About This Professor


Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 1985

Research Interests 

Nanocomposites of ferroelectric-/-magnetic oxides, optical properties of materials, transmission electron microscopy of semiconductor nanowires, hybrid phtovoltaic nanocompostites.

Current Research Projects 

Dr. Salamanca-Riba's research is in the areas of self-assembly of semiconductor nanowires and liquid crystal nanocomposites for hybrid photovoltaic applications, DNA-based biosensors and radiation sensors on GaAs, and materials with high C content in the form of nanocarbon called “covetics”.

Dr. Salamanca-Riba’s research involves the use of the transmission electron microscopes and the atomic force microscope at the Nanoscale Imaging, Spectroscopy, and Properties (NISP) Laboratory.  The project on covetics involves the understanding of the role of nanocarbon on the structure and properties of metals.  The incorporation of C enhances several properties of the host metal, such as, the thermal and electrical conductivity, the oxidation and corrosion resistance and the yield strength.  Covetics can be deposited as thin films and used as contacts in photovoltaics and other electronic applications.

Her project on DNA attached to GaAs aims at understanding the anchoring mechanism between thiolated DNA and GaAs that gives rise to arrays of single stranded DNA molecules oriented normal to the surface of GaAs. These structures could be used for the fabrication of biosensors and radiation sensors.

Her third project is in the growth and characterization of semiconductor nanowire arrays of ZnO for the fabrication of light emitting devices. The nanowires are combined with liquid crystals for applications as hybrid photovoltaics in which the liquid crystal is the hole conductor and the ZnO the electron conductor.  These solar cells are expected to have higher efficiencies than all organic solar cells and be less expensive to produce than all inorganic solar cells.

See also: Research Spotlight: The Role of Multiphase Formation on the Properties of BiFeO3 Films »

Group Members

  • Xiaoxiao Ge
  • Romaine Antonio Isaacs
  • H. M. Iftekhar Jaim
  • James Pattison
  • Joshua Aaron Taillon
  • Kim N. Tran


Dr. Salamanca-Riba typically teaches the following courses:

ENMA 671: Defects in Materials
This course emphasizes fundamental aspects of zero-, one- and two-dimensional defects in materials. The thermodynamic equilibrium of point defects in different oxide materials and their effect on the physical properties of the material are discussed. Dislocation-dislocation and dislocation-point defect interactions, dislocations in different crystals and roles of dislocations in deformation, twinning, and phase transformation are also discussed. The effects of dislocations and other defects on the electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of materials are discussed.

ENMA 680: Experimental Methods in Materials Science
This course covers the basic principles of electron microscopy theory, electron diffraction, and imaging theory. The electron beam sample interaction that gives rise to different signals is related to the structural and compositional information that is obtained from a sample using a TEM. The most common TEM techniques for structural characterization of a sample, namely, electron diffraction, bright/dark field imaging, and high resolution lattice imaging are discussed. Compositional information obtained from x-ray fluorescence and electron energy loss as well as the resolution of these techniques is also covered. A description of techniques used to study magnetic materials is also presented.

ENMA 683: Special Problems in Materials Science, Structural Determination Laboratory
This course covers the operation of an electron microscope. TEM techniques that are used to characterize the structure, defects, and composition of a sample are presented and used to study a variety of materials. These techniques are: electron diffraction patterns, bright/dark field imaging, high resolution lattice imaging and analytical microscopy techniques, such as, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. This course also covers different sample preparation techniques for TEM. The goal of the course is that the students become independent users of the TEM. The main objective in this class is to become an independent user of the TEM. This is achieved by learning:

  • to align the beam in a transmission electron microscope
  • to operate the TEM by:
    • tilting the sample to the desired orientation
    • taking a diffraction pattern
    • taking bright/dark field images
    • how to analyze the images
    • to obtain energy dispersive X-ray spectra and maps in TEM and STEM modes.
    • to obtain high resolution lattice images
    • to obtain and analyze electron energy loss spectra and maps in TEM and STEM modes

Professional Memberships 

  • American Physical Society (APS)
  • Electron Microscopy Society of America
  • Materials Research Society (MRS)

Books and Chapters 

"Compound and Alloy Semiconductor Superlattices," L. Salamanca-Riba, Chapter F.6 in Handbook of Thin Semiconductor Films, 1997.

Selected Publications 

Recent Publications

“Systematic structural and chemical characterization of the transition layer at the interface of NO-annealed 4H-SiC/SiO2 metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Joshua A. Taillon,  Joon Hyuk Yang, Claude A. Ahyi,  John Rozen, John R. Williams, Leonard C. Feldman, Tsvetanka S. Zheleva, Aivars J. Lelis, and Lourdes G. Salamanca-Riba, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 044517-1 -6 (2013).

“Microstructural Evolution of Severely Plastically Deformed Sensitized Aluminum 5456-H116 Treated by Ultrasonic Impact Treatment,” K. Tran and L. Salamamca-Riba, Adv. Eng. Materials, (submitted).

 “X-Ray Tomography of near α Titanium Friction Stir Welds, J.N. Wolk, R. K. Everett, L. Salamanca-Riba, Scripta Materiala, (submitted).

“ZnO Nanorod-Smectic Liquid Crystal Composites for Potential Photovoltaic Applications: role of ZnO Particle Size, Shape and Concentration on Liquid Crystal Order and Current – Voltage Properties,” J. Branch, R. Thompson, J. W Taylor, L. Salamanca-Riba and L.J. Martinez-Miranda, Appl. Phys. Lett. (submitted).

"In-situ Observation of Reversible Nanomagnetic Switching Induced by Electric Fields," T. Brintlinger, S. -H. Lim, K. H. Baloch, P. Alexander, Y. Qi J. Barry, J. Melngailis, L. Salamanca-Riba, I. Takeuchi, & J. Cumings, Nano Lett., 1219-1223 (2010).

"Exchange Bias in thin film (Co/Pt)3/Cr2O3 Multilayers," S. -H. Lim, M. Murakami, S. E. Lofland, A. J. Zambano, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, and I. Takeuchi, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321, 1955-1958 (2009).

"Structural transitions and complex domain structures across a ferroelectric-to-antiferroelectric phase boundary in epitaxial Sm-doped BiFeO3 thin films," C. -J. Cheng, D. Kan, S.-H. Lim, W. R. McKenzie, P. R. Munroe, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, R. L. Withers, I. Takeuchi, and and V. Nagarajan, Phys. Rev. B 80, 014109 (2009).

"Enhanced conductivity of n-InGaZn6O9 films and its rectifying characteristics with p-SiC," R. K. Sahua, R. D. Visputea, S. Dhara, D. C. Kundaliyaa, S. Sundar Manoharana, T. Venkatesana, S. -H. Lim, and L. G. Salamanca-Riba, Thin Solid Films 517, 1829-1832 (2009).

"Synthesis and characterization of Nb2AlC thin films," T. H. Scabarozi, J. Roche, A. Rosenfeld, S. -H. Lim, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, G. Yong, I. Takeuchi, M. W. Barsoum, J. D. Hettinger, and S. E. Lofland, Thin Solid Films 517, 2920-2923 (2009).

"Role of oxygen partial pressure and seed layer chemistry in flux mediated epitaxy of single phase multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films," V. Anbusathaiah, C. J. Cheng, S. –H. Lim, M. Murakami, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, I. Takeuchi, and V. Nagarajan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 192906 (2008).

"Effect of Ru-Mn redox interactions on the hole carrier density in Pulsed Electron deposited La1-xPbxMn0.2Ru0.2O3 (0.2≤x≤0.4) thin films," S. S. Manoharan, B. Singh, R. K. Sahu, A. Zimmer, S. -H. Lim, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, and V. Chandra, J. of Phys. Condens. Metter 20, 235205 (2008).

"Structural and Magnetic Properties of Cubic Zirconia/Co Composites Synthesized by Microwave Route," T. R. Sahoo, S. S. Manoharan, S. -H. Lim, and L. G. Salamanca-Riba, Synthesis and Reactivity in Inorganic, Metal-Organic, and Nano-Metal Chemistry, 38, 3, 280-283 (2008).

"Combinatorial discovery of a lead-free high Tc piezoelectric perovskite at a morphotropic phase boundary," S. Fujino, S. -H. Lim, M. Murakami, V. Nagarajan, C. J. Fennie, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, L. Salamanca-Riba, and I. Takeuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 202904 (2008).

"Enhanced dielectric properties in single crystal-like BiFeO3 thin films grown by flux-mediated epitaxy," S.-H. Lim, M. Murakami, J. H. Yang, S.-Y. Young, J. Hattrick-Simpers, M. Wuttig, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, and I. Takeuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 012918 (2008).
Abstract | Full Text (PDF) | DOI 10.1063/1.2831665  Copyright 2008 American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics.

"Magneto-resistive behavior in hole doped La1-xPbxMn0.2Ru0.2O3 (0.2≤x≤0.4) epitaxial thin films," S. S. Manoharan, B. Singh, S. -H. Lim, V. Chandra, A. Zimmer, L.G. Salamanca-Riba, J. of Appl. Phys. 103, 07F709 (2008).

"Niobium doped TiO2: Intrinsic transparent metallic anatase versus highly resistive rutile phase," S. X. Zhang,  D. C. Kundaliya, W. Yu, S. Dhar, S. Y. Young, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, S. B. Ogale,  R. D. Vispute, and T. Venkatesan, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013701 (2007).

"Magnetism and anomalous Hall effect in Co-(La,Sr)TiO3," S.X. Zhang, W. Yu, S.B. Ogale, S.R. Shinde, D.C. Kundaliya, Wang-Kong Tse, S.Y. Young, J.S. Higgins, L.G. Salamanca-Riba, M. Herrera, L.F. Fu, N.D. Browning, R.L. Greene, and T. Venkatesan, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085323-6 (2007).

"Heteroepitaxially Enhanced Magnetic Anisotropy in BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 Nanostructures," Haimei Zheng, Jens Kreisel, Ying-Hao Chu, R. Ramesh, and Lourdes Salamanca-Riba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 113113-6 (2007).

"Ferroelectric properties of multiphase Bi-Fe-O thin films," S. Fujino, M. Murakami, S. -H. Lim, M. Wuttig, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, and I. Takeuchi, Solid State Ionics 178, 1257 (2007).

“Microstructural characterization of multiphase formation in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films,” S. -H. Lim, M. Murakami, W. L. Sarney, S. Q. Ren, A. Varatharajan, V. Nagarajan, S. Fujino, M. Wuttig, I. Takeuchi, and L. Salamanca-Riba, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2594 (2007).

"Multiphase growth in Bi-Mn-O thin films,”" S. Fujino, M. Murakami, S. -H. Lim, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, M. Wuttig and I. Takeuchi, J. of Appl. Phys. 101, 013903 (2007).

"Fabrication of multiferroic epitaxial BiCrO3 thin films," M. Murakami, S. Fujino, S. -H. Lim, C. J. Long, V. Nagarajan, A. Varatharajan, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, M. Wuttig and I. Takeuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 162902 (2006).

"Microstructure and phase control in Bi-Fe-O multiferroic nanocomposite thin films," M. Murakami, S. Fujino, S. -H. Lim, B. Varughese, H. Sugaya, T. Hasegawa, S.E. Lofland, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, M. Wuttig, and I. Takeuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 112505 (2006).

"Size and shape evolution of embedded single-crystal α-Fe nanowires," L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, H. Zheng, Q. Zhan, S. Y. Yang, R. Ramesh, L. Salamanca-Riba, M. Wuttig, S. B. Ogale, and X. Pan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 203110-3 (2005).

"On the Origin of High Temperature Ferromagnetism in Low Temperature Processed Mn-Zn-O System," Darshan C. Kundaliya, S. B. Ogale, S. E. Lofland, S. Dhar, C. J. Metting, S. R. Shinde, Z. Ma, B. Varughese, K.V. Ramanujachary, L. Salamanca-Riba, and T. Venkatesan, Nature Materials  3, 709-14 (2004).

"Evidence for power-law frequency dependence of intrinsic dielectric response in the CaCu3Ti4O12," Alexander Tselev, Charles M. Brooks, Steven M. Anlage, Haimei Zheng, Lourdes Salamanca-Riba, R. Ramesh, and M. A. Subramanian, Phys. Rev. B 70, 144101-8 (2004).

"Suppression of Antiphase Domain Boundary Formation in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films grown on vicinal MgO substrates," H. Zheng, L. Salamanca-Riba, R. Ramesh, and H. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2905-7 (2004).

"Radiation-induced failure mechanisms of GaAs-based biochips," M. Al-Sheikhly, D. Sweet, L. Salamanca-Riba, B. Varughese, J. Silverman, A. Christou, and W. Bentley, IEEE, Device and Materials Reliability, 4, 192-7 (2004).

"Self-assembled Perpendicular Ferromagnetic Iron Nanowires Through Spontaneous Phase Decomposition in La0.5Sr0.5FeO3  Films Grown on SrTiO3 Substrates," L. Mohaddes-Ardabili1, H. Zheng, S. B. Ogale, B. Hannoyer, W. Tian, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, S. R. Shinde, T. Zhao , L. Salamanca-Riba, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig and R. Ramesh, Nature Materials 3, 533 (2004).

"Three dimensional heteroepitaxy in self-assembled BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 nanostructures," H. Zheng, J. Wang, L. Mohaddes Ardabili, D.G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, R. Ramesh, and L. Salamanca-Riba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2035-7 (2004).

"Structural analysis of DNA monolayers on GaAs surface", Luz J. Martínez-Miranda, Ladan Mohaddes Ardabili, Lourdes G. Salamanca-Riba, Aristos Christou, Joseph Silverman, William E. Bentely , Mohamad Al-Sheikhly, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6021-4 (2004).

"Characterization of a-Si:H resists for a vacuum-compatible photolithography process," R. N. Jacobs, J.H. Dinan, and  L. Salamanca-Riba, J. Vac. Sci. and Technol. 22, 1141-4 (2004).

"Multiferroic BaTiO3-CoFe2O4," H. Zheng, J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig and R. Ramesh, Science 303, 661-3, 2004.

"Systematic Study of Effects of Growth Conditions on the (Nano-, Meso-, Micro) size and (one-, two-, three-dimensional) Shape of GaN Single Crystals Grown by a Direct Reaction of Ga with Amonia," Aya Moustafa Sayed ElAhi, Maoqi He, Peizhen Zhou, G.L. Harris, Lourdes Salamanca-Riba, Frederick Felt, Harry C. Shaw, Ashok Sharma, Muzar Jah, Darryl Lakins, Todd Steiner, and S. Noor Mohammad, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7749-56 (2003).

"InAs Nanowires and Whiskers Grown by Reaction of In with GaAs," Maoqi He, M.M.E. Fahmi, S. Noor Mohammad, Randolph N. Jacobs, Lourdes Salamanca-Riba, Frederick Felt, Muzar Jah, Ashok Sharma, and Darryl Lakins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3749-51 (2003).

"Attachment of DNA probes on gallium arsenide surface" Ladan Mohaddes-Ardabili, Luz J. Martinez-Miranda, Joseph Silverman, Aristos Christou, Lourdes G. Salamanca-Riba, Mohamad Al-Sheikhly, William E. Bentley, and F. Ohuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 192-4 (2003).

"The role of Pb excess in the crystallization of PZT films derived via sol-gel processing," Randolph N. Jacobs, and L. Salamanca-Riba, J. Mater. Res. 18, 1405-11 (2003).

"Ordering on LSAT Substrates," Hao Li, L. Salamanca-Riba, R. Ramesh, and J.H. Scott, J. Mater. Res. 17, 1698-1704 (2003).


Selected Older Publications

"Origin of Antiphase Domain Boundaries and their Effect on the Dielectric Constant of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 Films Grown on MgO Substrates," Hao Li, H. Zheng, L. Salamanca-Riba, R. Ramesh, I. Naumov, and K. Rabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4398-4400 (2002).

"The Concept of High Angle Wedge Polishing and Thickness Monitoring in TEM Sample Preparation," Hao Li and L. Salamanca-Riba, Ultramicroscopy  88, 171-8 (2001).

"Columnar defect induced phase transformation in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3," S.B.Ogale, Y.H.Li, M.Rajeswari, L. Salamanca-Riba, R. Ramesh, T. Venkatesan, A. J. Millis, Ravi Kumar, G. K. Mehta, R.V. Bathe, S. I. Patil, J. Appl. Phys.87, 4210-5 (2000).

Selected Presentations 

"Properties and Structure of New Materials with High C Content Called Covetics," Samsung Electromechanics, Seoul, Korea May 30, 2013.

"Properties and Structure of New Materials with High C Content Called Covetics" Korea University, Seoul, Korea, May 27, 2013.

"Evidence for Superhydrogenic Ce Doping of Lu2O3 Films," APS March Meeting 2010, March 15-19, 2010, abstract #X24.001.

"Microstructural Characterization of Multiphase Formation and its Effect on the Properties of Multiferroic Thin Films", Physics Symposium, Ensenada, Mexico, February, 2007.

"Multiferroic BiFeO3, Formation and Properties", 2007 Joint Annual Conference of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) and the National Society of Hispanic Physicists (NSHP), Boston, Mass., February 2007.


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MSE senior recognized for work toward improving efficiency and lowering the cost of solar cells. May 8, 2015

Workshop on Defects in Wide Band Gap Semiconductors Sept. 23
Abstracts due July 28 July 10, 2014

Over Half of Tenured MSE Professors Are UMD "Research Leaders"
Division of Research honors faculty for funded research. December 3, 2013

Nanowerk Spotlights Salamanca-Riba's Work with Rare New Material
Fused carbon-metal covetics exhibit high strength and polymer-like deformation. November 1, 2013

Taillon Wins NSF Graduate Research Fellowship
Award supports study of silicon carbide for use in efficient, high-powered electronics. May 15, 2013

Liquid Crystal/Nanoparticle Mix Lays Groundwork for New Photovoltaics
Novel study demonstrates possibility of cheaper, flexible solar cells. March 31, 2011

Salamanca-Riba Silicon Carbide Research Highlighted by NIST
Project explores enhancements to materials used in communications devices. November 8, 2010

Wolk Wins Women Moving Forward Award
Naval award recognizes student’s work in alternative welding technologies.. August 12, 2009

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Clark School engineers discover new material to reduce lead in electronics, landfills. November 18, 2008

Graduate Society Receives MRS Charter
Group recognized at Fall Meeting. December 6, 2007

MSE Faculty Continues to Produce "Research Leaders"
Professors honored for their efforts to bring sponsored research funds to campus. October 29, 2007

NSF Grant Enhances NISP Lab's Capabilities
$500k grant will benefit composition analysis and biological tissue characterization. August 29, 2006

MSE Faculty Pursues New Work In Bi-Fe-O Multiferroic Nanocomposite Thin Films
Top materials science journal Applied Physics Letters publishes paper. June 1, 2006